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The Republic of Bulgaria shares its borders with 5 other countries in southeastern Europe and has a coastline on the Black Sea. Romania lies to the north, Turkey to the southeast, Greece to the south, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the southwest, and Serbia (with Montenegro part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) to the west. The eastern coastline on the Black Sea is 354 kilometers (220 miles) long, and the total area of the country is 110,910 square kilometers (42,823 square miles)

The capital, Sofia, is situated at the foot of the Balkan and Vitosha Mountains in western Bulgaria; other principal cities are Plovdiv in south-central Bulgaria, the coastal cities of Varna and Burgas, and Ruse on the Danube River.